It is important for people to ask questions before deciding to enter a clinical trial. Questions people might want to ask their doctor or nurse include the following:

The Study

  • What is the purpose of the study?
  • Why do the researchers think the approach being tested may be effective? Has it been tested before?
  • Who is sponsoring the study?
  • Who has reviewed and approved the study?
  • What are the medical credentials and experience of the researchers and other study personnel?
  • How are the study results and safety of participants being monitored?
  • How long will the study last?
  • How will the results be shared?

Possible Risks and Benefits

  • What are the possible short-term benefits?
  • What are the possible long-term benefits?
  • What are the short-term risks, such as side effects? What are the possible long-term risks?
  • What other treatment options are available?
  • How do the possible risks and benefits of the trial compare with those of other options?

Participation and Care

  • What kinds of treatment, medical tests, or procedures will the participants have during the study? How often will they receive the treatments, tests, or procedures?
  • Will treatments, tests, or procedures be painful? If so, how can the pain be controlled?
  • How do the tests in the study compare with what people might receive outside the study?
  • Will participants be able to take their regular medications while in the clinical trial?
  • Where will the participants receive their medical care? Will they be in a hospital? If so, for how long?
  • Who will be in charge of the participants’ care? Will they be able to see their own doctors?
  • How long will participants need to stay in the study? Will there be follow-up visits after the study?

Personal Issues

  • How could being in the study affect the participants’ daily lives?
  • What support is available for participants and their families?
  • Can potential participants talk with people already enrolled in the study?

Cost Issues

  • Will participants have to pay for any treatment, tests, or other charges? If so, what will the approximate charges be?
  • What is health insurance likely to cover?
  • Who can help answer questions from the insurance company or health plan?

Source: https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/clinical-trials/questions

Health insurance and managed care providers often do not cover the patient care costs associated with a clinical trial. What they cover varies by health plan and by study. Some health plans do not cover clinical trials if they consider the approach being studied “experimental” or “investigational.” However, if enough data show that the approach is safe and effective, a health plan may consider the approach “established” and cover some or all of the costs. Participants may have difficulty obtaining coverage for costs associated with prevention and screening clinical trials; health plans are currently less likely to have review processes in place for these studies. It may, therefore, be more difficult to get coverage for the costs associated with them. In many cases, it helps to have someone from the research team talk about coverage with representatives of the health plan.

Health plans may specify other criteria a trial must meet to be covered. The trial might have to be sponsored by a specified organization, be judged “medically necessary” by the health plan, not be significantly more expensive than treatments the health plan considers standard, or focus on types of cancer for which no standard treatments are available. In addition, the facility and medical staff might have to meet the plan’s qualifications for conducting certain procedures, such as bone marrow transplantations. More information about insurance coverage can be found on the NCI’s Clinical Trials and Insurance Coverage: A Resource Guide Web page here on the Internet.

Federal programs that help pay the costs of care in a clinical trial include those listed below:

  • Medicare reimburses patient care costs for its beneficiaries who participate in clinical trials designed to diagnose or treat cancer. Information about Medicare coverage of clinical trials is available at https://www.medicare.gov/coverage/clinical-research-studies.html.
  • Beneficiaries of TRICARE, the Department of Defense’s health program, can be reimbursed for the medical costs of participation in NCI-sponsored phase II and phase III cancer prevention (including screening and early detection) and treatment trials.
  • The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) allows eligible veterans to participate in NCI-sponsored prevention, diagnosis, and treatment studies nationwide. All phases and types of NCI-sponsored trials are included.

Source: https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/clinical-trials/paying

The possible risks of participating in a clinical trial include the following:

  • New drugs or procedures under study are not always better than the standard care to which they are being compared.
  • New treatments may have side effects or risks that doctors do not expect or that are worse than those resulting from standard care.
  • Participants in randomized trials will not be able to choose the approach they receive.
  • Health insurance and managed care providers may not cover all patient care costs in a study.
  • Participants may be required to make more visits to the doctor than they would if they were not in the clinical trial.

Source: https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/clinical-trials/taking-part

The benefits of participating in a clinical trial include the following:
  • Participants have access to promising new approaches that are often not available outside the clinical trial setting.
  • The approach being studied may be more effective than the standard approach.
  • Participants receive regular and careful medical attention from a research team that includes doctors and other health professionals.
  • Participants may be the first to benefit from the new method under study.
  • Results from the study may help others in the future.

Source: https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/clinical-trials/taking-part

Clinical trials are usually conducted in a series of steps, called phases. Treatment clinical trials listed in PDQ (Physician Data Query), the NCI’s comprehensive cancer information database, are always assigned a phase. However, screening, prevention, diagnostic, and quality-of-life studies do not always have a phase. Genetics clinical trials generally do not have a phase.

  • Phase I trials are the first step in testing a new approach in people. In these studies, researchers evaluate what dose is safe, how a new agent should be given (by mouth, injected into a vein, or injected into the muscle), and how often. Researchers watch closely for any harmful side effects. Phase I trials usually enroll a small number of patients and take place at only a few locations. The dose of the new therapy or technique is increased a little at a time. The highest dose with an acceptable level of side effects is determined to be appropriate for further testing.
  • Phase II trials study the safety and effectiveness of an agent or intervention, and evaluate how it affects the human body. Phase II studies usually focus on a particular type of cancer, and include fewer than 100 patients.
  • Phase III trials compare a new agent or intervention (or new use of a standard one) with the current standard therapy. Participants are randomly assigned to the standard group or the new group, usually by computer. This method, called randomization, helps to avoid bias and ensures that human choices or other factors do not affect the study’s results. In most cases, studies move into phase III testing only after they have shown promise in phases I and II. Phase III trials often include large numbers of people across the country.
  • Phase IV trials are conducted to further evaluate the long-term safety and effectiveness of a treatment. They usually take place after the treatment has been approved for standard use. Several hundred to several thousand people may take part in a phase IV study. These studies are less common than phase I, II, or III trials.

People who participate in a clinical trial work with a research team. Team members may include doctors, nurses, social workers, dietitians, and other health professionals. The health care team provides care, monitors participants’ health, and offers specific instructions about the study. So that the trial results are as reliable as possible, it is important for participants to follow the research team’s instructions. The instructions may include keeping logs or answering questionnaires. The research team may continue to contact participants after the trial ends.

Source: https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/clinical-trials/what-are-trials/phases

Clinical trials take place in doctors’ offices, cancer centers, other medical centers, community hospitals and clinics, and veterans’ and military hospitals in cities and towns across the United States and in other countries. Clinical trials may include participants at one or two highly specialized centers, or they may involve hundreds of locations at the same time.

Source: https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/clinical-trials/what-are-trials/where

Informed consent is a process by which people learn the important facts about a clinical trial to help them decide whether to participate. This information includes details about what is involved, such as the purpose of the study, the tests and other procedures used in the study, and the possible risks and benefits. In addition to talking with the doctor or nurse, people receive a written consent form explaining the study. People who agree to take part in the study are asked to sign the informed consent form. However, signing the form does not mean people must stay in the study. People can leave the study at any time—either before the study starts or at any time during the study or the follow-up period.

The informed consent process continues throughout the study. If new benefits, risks, or side effects are discovered during the study, the researchers must inform the participants. They may be asked to sign new consent forms if they want to stay in the study.

Source: https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/clinical-trials/patient-safety/informed-consent

Each study’s protocol has guidelines for who can or cannot participate in the study. These guidelines, called eligibility criteria, describe characteristics that must be shared by all participants. The criteria differ from study to study. They may include age, gender, medical history, and current health status. Eligibility criteria for treatment studies often require that patients have a particular type and stage of cancer.

Enrolling participants with similar characteristics helps to ensure that the results of the trial will be due to what is under study and not other factors. In this way, eligibility criteria help researchers achieve accurate and meaningful results. These criteria also minimize the risk of a person’s condition becoming worse by participating in the study.

Source: https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/clinical-trials/taking-part

Research with people is conducted according to strict scientific and ethical principles. Every clinical trial has a protocol, or action plan, which acts like a “recipe” for conducting the trial. The plan describes what will be done in the study, how it will be conducted, and why each part of the study is necessary. The same protocol is used by every doctor or research center taking part in the trial.

All clinical trials that are federally funded or that evaluate a new drug or medical device subject to Food and Drug Administration regulation must be reviewed and approved by an Institutional Review Board (IRB). Many institutions require that all clinical trials, regardless of funding, be reviewed and approved by a local IRB. The Board, which includes doctors, researchers, community leaders, and other members of the community, reviews the protocol to make sure the study is conducted fairly and participants are not likely to be harmed. The IRB also decides how often to review the trial once it has begun. Based on this information, the IRB decides whether the clinical trial should continue as initially planned and, if not, what changes should be made. An IRB can stop a clinical trial if the researcher is not following the protocol or if the trial appears to be causing unexpected harm to the participants. An IRB can also stop a clinical trial if there is clear evidence that the new intervention is effective, in order to make it widely available.

NIH-supported clinical trials require data and safety monitoring. Some clinical trials, especially phase III clinical trials, use a Data and Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB). A DSMB is an independent committee made up of statisticians, physicians, and patient advocates. The DSMB ensures that the risks of participation are as small as possible, makes sure the data are complete, and stop a trial if safety concerns arise or when the trial’s objectives have been met.

Government agencies, such as the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and other divisions of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Department of Defense, and the Department of Veterans Affairs sponsor and conduct clinical trials. In addition, organizations or individuals such as physicians, medical institutions, foundations, volunteer groups, and pharmaceutical companies also sponsor clinical trials.

The overall goal of the Heartland NCORP is to bring cancer clinical trials (cancer control, symptom control, prevention, screening, treatment and imaging), as well as cancer care delivery research to individuals in their own communities. This means patients can stay near home and yet receive expert care while at the same time they contribute to the overall knowledge of treating cancer. Heartland NCORP provides access to cutting edge therapies to a diverse population, including people who are often underserved because of where they live. Research in the community setting allows access to a larger and more diverse patient population in “real world” healthcare locations. This provides researchers with realistic information about how new therapies can be used in local communities and helps increase the generalizability of study findings. Engaging community oncologists in cancer clinical research can also speed up the acceptance and use of improved therapies into routine care. This helps all patients.

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Where can people find more information about clinical trials?

People interested in taking part in a clinical trial should talk with their health care provider. Information about cancer clinical trials is also available from the NCI’s Cancer Information Service (CIS). The CIS is the National Cancer Institute’s link to the public, interpreting and explaining research findings in a clear and understandable manner, and providing personalized responses to specific questions about cancer. Access the CIS by calling 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237), or by using the LiveHelp instant-messaging service.

People also have the option of searching for clinical trials on their own. The clinical trials page of the NCI’s Web site, located at http://www.cancer.gov/clinicaltrials/ on the Internet, provides information about clinical trials. Another valuable resource is the NIH’s ClinicalTrials.gov Web site. ClinicalTrials.gov lists clinical trials sponsored by the NIH, other Federal agencies, and the pharmaceutical industry for a wide range of diseases, including cancer and other conditions. This site can be found at http://clinicaltrials.gov/.

Related Resources

Content provided by www.cancer.gov